Capillary damp is characteristic of old buildings built at a time when builders did not know about waterproof materials such as bitumen and similar. Also, old buildings were often built without a foundation, directly on the ground.
Capillary damp can also appear in newer buildings, where waterproofing was installed during construction.
Since the basic building materials (brick, stone, mortar, concrete...) are porous to a greater or lesser extent, through them, that is, through the microcapillaries that exist in their structure, moisture rises from the soil and gradually rises upwards.
The "culprit" for this is the surface tension of water, which occurs due to the polarization of water molecules, and its direct consequence is the capillary effect. Due to the capillary effect, the water "climbs" through the wall and, moving, creates an additional electromagnetic field in the wall, which increases the capillary action.
Then it is about damage, bridging or wear and tear of the waterproofing.
Also, in case of floods, capillary damp often remains permanently in the walls due to the bridging of the waterproofing.
SIGNS INDICATING CAPILLARY DAMP:
– Stratification, falling off and destruction of materials (plaster, concrete, stone)
– Appearance of salt, nitrates and mold on the surface
– Unpleasant smell of moisture in the room